Adaptation and Resilience, Eastern Africa

The aim of Adaption and Resilience in eastern Africa is to provide a longer-term historical perspective on human-environment interactions to enable future long-term sustainable use of East Africa’s fragile environment and resources. The regional project builds on the earlier research projects Historical Ecologies of East African Landscapes (HEEAL) (now completed); Resilience in East African Landscapes (REAL) now completed) and the ongoing Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC, see below).

Together we focus on the temporal, spatial, and social dynamics of human-landscape interactions in East Africa over the last millennium. The issue of adaptation and resilience to climate change remains hotly debated due to complexities and challenges inherent in the understanding of our relationship with the environments and changing in climate systems as well as those inherent in in the adaptation and resilience process. The growing incidences of extreme events (floods and droughts) due to a changing climate are increasingly seen as a major risk affecting economy, food security, health, ecosystems, biodiversity and people’s livelihoods. Faced with human-caused rapid change in climate, policy, behavioural and livelihood changes, and ensuing trade-offs that are being made between socio-economic development goals and environmental sustainability targets (as stipulated by SDGs).

Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC)

Countries such in eastern Africa require new frameworks for envisioning and planning desired futures. The main aim of the ARCC project (funded by
the Swedish Research Council, VR in association with Sida) is to address how socioecological systems may respond under future climate change and social scenarios? We ask how socioecological systems in the study area have changed over the past 300 years? Climatic and vegetation data from the last 300 years help us understand how ecosystems have responded to past climate change, and how will it may respond to climate change in the future. We also explore how the biodiversity of the region been generated, how is it maintained and how biodiversity protection impacts livelihoods today?

Location of the main focus of the ARCC research project indicating the position of pollen coring sites, the archaeological survey and the National Park boundaries

ARCC will use past societal and ecological trends to examine the use and relationships between people and ecosystem services through time and under different landscape management regimes, to better predict how human-environment-societal- wildlife relationships may respond to future climate change, management interventions and societal use. Focusing in the semi-arid landscapes of the north-western Tanzania we will present a c. 300 year environmental history derived from a synthesis of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from swamps and lakes. Changes in vegetation and charcoal counts are associated with climatic changes, fire activity and anthropogenic activity, much of this associated with the increasing population, partly tied into the caravan trade of the 17 and 18th centuries.  Sedentary agriculture has intensified dramatically since the colonial period, a transition accelerated during post-colonial administration under the most recent expansion has increasing been focused around the boundaries of protected areas, severely challenge the adaptive capacity of plants, wildlife and the rural communities depending on them. Information from long-term data and perspectives is crucial to facilitating the policy processes and adaptation actions and building resilience and sustainable management of the ecosystems under current and future climate change.

Tarangire National Park (Dry season) Tarangire National Park (Wet season right)
Current land use transformations are similarly having a large impact on the swamps (left) provide dry season grazing resource, particularly vital during dry seasons and that are becoming increasingly severe and prolonged, are a stark contrast to wetlands just outside the protected areas that are drained and converted to agricultural production (right).

The palaeoecological component of ARCC analyses a range of palaeoenvironmental proxies including pollen (Fig 2), charcoal, geochemistry, fungal spores, macrofossils, phytoliths and testate amoebae on a series of sediment cores from the Serengeti region to document past environmental changes with high spatial and temporal resolution.  A number of cores derived from the area are already under analysis, with preliminary results indicating significant change throughout the past 1,000 years.

Scenario approaches are useful in planning future adaptation strategies as they offer the opportunity to consider combinations of change, such as how projected climate change impacts, socio-economic trends, and local production and governance systems interact. As they explore multiple alternatives, scenarios can also account for uncertainty around the future events and the impact of different development pathways. We will apply participatory scenario modelling framework to explore potential adaptation strategies to projected climate change in ARCC study area and their consequences on the landscape and carbon storage. Local stakeholders that represent a cross section of society will be engaged in developing scenarios representing how their landscape would look like by mid-21st century if climates change, following AFRICLIM projections.

The archaeological component of the ARCC project is being spearheaded by Dr Anna Shoemaker at Uppsala University. To varying degrees of success, people play a key role in transforming the landscapes they inhabit and societies are likewise ever adapting to their changing environments. To better understand the long-term settlement and land use history of the Great Serengeti Ecosystem, the ARCC project is conducting systematic archaeological surveys. This fieldwork will entail identifying and characterising material culture and anthropogenic landscape features and test-excavating promising sites in areas that have been devoid of archaeological exploration to date, such as the western Serengeti. Our archaeological results, in combination with archival and oral historical sources will be used to elucidate the changing nature of land use during the late Iron Age and into the colonial period. Ultimately, this research aims to reconstruct the long-term ecological footprint of varied land use strategies and reframe older narratives that portray ‘baseline’ pre-colonial ecological conditions as essentially devoid of human influence.

The western Serengeti ecosystem of Tanzania is being surveyed by the ARCC project for archaeological remains, which will be interpreted in combination with archival and oral historical sources to understand changing nature of land use over the last 300 years. Note – Data on 19th century settlement sites in western Serengeti is from Maps 6-7 in Shetler,J.B. 2007, Imagining Serengeti: a history of landscape memory in Tanzania from earliest times to the present. Ohio University Press.

The project is lead by Paul Lane at Uppsala University and involves Anneli Ekblom (Uppsala University), Anna Shoemaker (Uppsala University), Linus Munishi (Nelson Mendela African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha), and Rob Marchant (York). Claudia Capitani (NM-AIST and University of York) and Colin Courtney-Mustaphi (Uppsala University and University of York) will be spearheading new projects, participatory events, and outreach components in the coming years focused in and around northwest Tanzania, including Serengeti National Park.

Location of Study Areas: 1 = Laikipai/Ewaso; 2 = Baringo-Naivasha; 3 = Amboseli; 4 = Kilimanjaro-Pare-Pangani

The Marie Curie Initial Training Network brought together ecologists, archaeologists, anthropologists, geographers, historians and agronomists providing cross-disciplinary training to a new generation of researchers, enabling them to interpret data relating to past and present socio-cultural and ecological dynamics from across the environmental and social sciences and the humanities. Organized by researchers from seven European universities (Uppsala University, University of YorkStockholm University, University of CologneWarwick UniversityGhent University and EHESS University of Paris I) in partnership with private actors, the ITN cooperated also with academic counterparts, private-sector stakeholders, NGOs and local communities in East Africa. The project consisted in 10 subprojects that are now completed. See much more detail in the REAL project webpage.

REAL members, in November 2013, Uppsala University, Sweden.


 Prof. Paul Lane (Uppsala University)

Dr. Linus Munishi (Nelson Mandela University AIST)

Prof. Rob Marchant (KITE, University of York)

Dr. Rebecca Kariuki (Nelson Mandela University AIST)

Dr. Colin Courtney-Mustaphi (Uppsala University)

Dr. Anna Shoemaker (Uppsala University)


Shoemaker, A., Ekblom, A., Kariuki, R., Munishi, L., Courtney-Mustaphi, C., Marchant, R., and Lane, PPoster presented at the Africa, The Cradle of Human Diversity conference, Uppsala University, Sweden.

de Bont C, Komakech H, Jan Veldwisch. 2019. Neither modern nor traditional: Farmer-led irrigation development in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. World Development 116, 15-27.

Ekblom A, Shoemaker A, Gillson L, Lane P, Lindholm K-L. 2019. Conservation through Biocultural Heritage—Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa. Land 8(1), 5.

Kariuki R, Marchant R, Willcock S (2018). Ecosystem services in Africa. In: Binns T, Lynch K and Nel E (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of African Development. Routledge, Oxford, UK.

Aleman, J.C., Hennebelle, A., Vannière, B., Blarquez, O., the Global Paleofire Working Group. 2018. Sparking New Opportunities for Charcoal-Based Fire History Reconstructions. Fire 1(1), 7. DOI: 10.3390/fire1010007

Seki HA, Shirima DD, Courtney Mustaphi CJMarchant R, Munishi PKT. 2018. The impact of land use and land cover change on biodiversity within and adjacent Kibasira Swamp in Kilombero valley, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 53(6): 518-527. doi: 10.1111/aje.12488

Courtney-Mustaphi CJ, Colombaroli D, Vannière B, Adolf C, Bremond L, Aleman J, the Global Paleofire Working Group (GPWG2). 2018. African fire histories and fire ecologies. PAGES Magazine 26(2), 88.

Komakech HC, de Bont, C. 2018. Differentiated access: Challenges of equitable and sustainable groundwater exploitation in Tanzania. Water Alternatives 11(3):  A11-3-10.

de Bont, C. 2018. The continuous quest for control by African irrigation planners in the face of farmer-led irrigation development: The case of the Lower Moshi Area, Tanzania (1935-2017). Water Alternatives 11(3): A11-3-22.

Gallego-Sala A, Charman D, Brewer S, Page S, Prentice IC, et al 2018. Latitudinal limits to the predicted increase of the peatland carbon sink with warming. Nature Climate Change.

Seki HA, Shirima DD, Courtney Mustaphi CJMarchant R, Munishi PKT. 2018. The impact of land use and land cover change on biodiversity within and adjacent Kibasira Swamp in Kilombero valley, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 53(6): 518-527. doi: 10.1111/aje.12488

Boles O, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Richer S, Marchant R. 2018. Joining the dots of land-use and land-cover change in Eastern Africa. PAGES Past Global Changes Magazine 26(1), p.16-17.

Shipton C, Roberts P, Archer W, Armitage SJ, Bita C, Blinkhorn J, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Crowther A, Curtis R, d’ Errico F, Douka K, Faulkner P, Groucutt HS, Helm R, Herries AIR, Jembe S, Kourampas N, Lee-Thorp J, Marchant R, Mercader J, Pitarch Marti A, Prendergast ME, Rowson B, Tengeza A, Tibesasa R, White TS, Petraglia MD, Boivin N. 78,000-year-old record of Middle and Later stone age innovation in an East African tropical forest. Nature Communications 9, 1832.

Kariuki R, Willcock S, Marchant R. 2018. Rangeland Livelihood Strategies under Varying Climate Regimes: Model Insights from Southern Kenya. Land 7, 47. doi:10.3390/land7020047

Beale CM, Courtney Mustaphi CJ, Morrison TA, Archibald S, Anderson TM, Dobson AP, Donaldson JE, Hempson GP, Probert J, Parr CL. 2018. Pyrodiversity interacts with rainfall to increase bird and mammal richness in African savannas. Ecology Letters 21(4): 557–567.

Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M, et al. 2018. Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present. Earth-Science Reviews 178: 322-378

Githumbi E, Kariuki R, Shoemaker A, Courtney Mustaphi C, Chuhila M, Richer S, Lane P, Marchant R. 2018. Pollen, people and place: paleoenvironmental, archaeological, and ecological perspectives on vegetation change in the Amboseli landscape, Kenya. Frontiers in Earth Science 5 Article 113: 1-26. DOI: 10.3389/feart.2017.00113

Githumbi EN*, Courtney Mustaphi CJ*, Yun KJ, Muiruri V, Rucina SM, Marchant R. 2018. Late Holocene wetland transgression and 500 years of vegetation and fire variability in the semi-arid Amboseli landscape, southern Kenya. Ambio – A Journal of the Human Environment 47(6), pp 682–696. *equal contribution

Pfeifer M, Andrew B, Calders K, Cayuela L, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Cuní-Sanchez A, Deere N, Denu D, Gonsamo A, Gonzalez de Tanago J, Hayward R, Lau A, Macia MJ, Marchant R, Ledo A, Marshall AR, Olivier P, Paine CET, Pellikka P, Hamidu S, Shirima D, Trevithick R, Wedeux B, Wheeler C, Woodgate W, Platts PJ. 2018. Tropical forest canopies and their relationships with climate and disturbance – results from a global dataset of consistent field-based measurements. Forest Ecosystems 5: 7. doi: 10.1186/s40663-017-0118-7

Bollig, M, Anderson, D. (eds.). 2017. Resilience and Collapse in African Savannahs. Causes and Consequences of Environmental Change in eastern Africa. London. Routledge.

Bollig, M. 2017. Adaptive cycles in the savannah: pastoral specialization and diversification in northern Kenya. In: M. Bollig and D. Anderson (eds), Resilience and Collapse in African Savannahs. Causes and Consequences of Environmental Change in eastern Africa. London. Routledge. pp. 21-44.

Pas Schrijver A, Lenkaina D. 2017. Grazing management and livestock mobility in Lekiji Sesia, Kenya. Printjob: Hoogeveen, Netherlands. pp 52. ISBN PDF 978-91-87355-37-0.

Shoemaker, A.C., Davies, M.I. and Moore, H.L., 2017. Back to the Grindstone? The Archaeological Potential of Grinding-Stone Studies in Africa with Reference to Contemporary Grinding Practices in Marakwet, Northwest Kenya. African Archaeological Review, pp.1-21.

Gravesen, M, Jensen, S. 2017. Etnisk og politisk strid om jord ryster et af Afrikas mest stabile lande. Information. 18 April 2017.

Kioko, E.M., 2017. Conflict Resolution and Crime Surveillance in Kenya: Local Peace Committees and Nyumba Kumi. Africa Spectrum, 52(1), pp.3-32.

Courtney Mustaphi CJ, Gajewski K, Marchant R, Rosqvist G. 2017. A late Holocene pollen record from proglacial Oblong Tarn, Mount Kenya. PLoS One. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184925 [Data available from open access Harvard Dataverse]

Marchant RCourtney-Mustaphi CGithumbi E. 2017. Entangled ecosystem-people-animal interactions: perspectives from East African savannas. Past Global Changes Magazine (PAGES), 25(2), 80-81. DOI:10.22498/pages.25.2.80

Hempson G, Parr C, Archibald S, Anderson T, Courtney Mustaphi, CJ, Dobson A, Donaldson J, Morrison T, Probert J, Beale C. Accepted July 2017. Continent-level drivers of African pyrodiversity. Ecography. [Data available from Dryad]

Hawthorne D*Courtney Mustaphi CJ*, Aleman JC*, Blarquez O, Colombaroli D, Daniau A-L, Marlon JR, Power M, Vannière B, Han Y, Hantson S, Kehrwald N, Magi B, Yue X, Carcaillet C, Marchant R, Ayodele O, Githumbi EN, Muriuki RM. Accepted in press. Global Modern Charcoal Dataset (GMCD): a tool for exploring proxy-fire linkages and spatial patterns of biomass burning. Quaternary International.
*equal contribution

Sánchez Goñi, M. F., Desprat, S., Daniau, A.-L., Bassinot, F. C., Polanco-Martínez, J. M., et al. 2017. The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period. Earth System Science Data Discussions, doi:10.5194/essd-2017-4. [Data available from PANGEA]

Bergius, Mikael, Tor A. Benjaminsen, Mats Widgren 2017. Green economy, Scandinavian investments and agricultural modernization in Tanzania. The Journal of Peasant Studies. DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2016.1260554

Armstrong CG, Shoemaker AC, McKechnie I, Ekblom A, Szabó P, Lane P, et al. (2017) Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospectsPLOS ONE. 12 (2) e0171883. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171883

Nik Petek, Paul Lane (2017): Ethnogenesis and surplus food production: communitas and identity building among nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ilchamus, Lake Baringo, Kenya. World Archaeology.

Bollig, M. 2016 Towards an Arid Eden? Boundary making, governance and benefit sharing and the political ecology of the “new commons” of Kunene Region, Northern Namibia. In: Pastoralism and the new commons: Co-management, conflict and cooperation (Guest editors: M. Bollig and C. Lesorogol). International Journal of the Commons 10(2).

Bollig, M., Olwage, E. 2016. The political ecology of hunting in Namibia’s Kaokoveld. From Dorsland Trekkers’ elephant hunts to trophy hunting in contemporary conservancies. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 34, 61-79.

Schnegg, M., Bollig, M., Linke, T. 2016. Moral equality and success of common-pool water governance in Namibia. Ambio 45(5), pp 581–590. DOI 10 1007/s13280-016-0766-9

Ming’ate, F.L.M. and Bollig, M., 2016. Local Rules and Their Enforcement in the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve Co-Management Arrangement in Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History, 105(1), pp.1-19. DOI: 10.2982/028.105.0102

Hazard B, Adongo C. 2016. Green grabbinget modèles de conservation dans le comté de Marsabit. Cahier de l’Afrique de l’Est, No 50.

Adongo, C. 2016. From Sacred Groves to Cultural sites: the role of socio-economic dynamics in the conservation of Kaya Mudzi Muvya, Kenya. In: Marie Pierre and Sophie Blanchy (eds.) Revalorisation patrimonial des sites naturels sacrés (Kenya, Ouganda, Madagascar). Enjeaux lovaux, nationaux et internationaux. Journal des africanistes. TOME 86. ISBN 978-2-908948-44-8.

Capitani, C, Mukama, K, Mbilinyi, B, Malugu, I, Munishi, PKT, Burgess, ND, Platts, PJ, Sallu, S, Marchant, R, (2016). From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania. Ecology and Society 21(3):4. 

Pauli J, Bedorf F. 2016. From Ultimogeniture to Senior Club. Negotiating Certainties and Uncertainties of Growing Older between Rural Mexico and Urban Chicago. In: Wonneberger, Astrid, Mijal Gandelsman-Trier; Hauke Dorsch (eds.). Migration, Networks, Skills. Anthropological Perspectives on Mobility and Transformation. Bielefeld: Transcript, 47-66.

de Bont, C., Veldwisch, G.J., Komakech, H.C. and Vos, J., 2016. The fluid nature of water grabbing: the on-going contestation of water distribution between peasants and agribusinesses in Nduruma, Tanzania. Agriculture and human values, 33(3), pp.641-654. DOI: 10.1007/s10460-015-9644-5

Finch J, Marchant RCourtney Mustaphi CJ. 2016. Ecosystem change in the South Pare Mountain bloc, Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. The Holocene. The Holocene 27 (6), 796-810. [ScienceDaily summary]

Marlon, J. R., Kelly, R,. Daniau, A.-L., Vannière, B., Power, M. J., Bartlein, P., Higuera, P., Blarquez, O., Brewer, S., Brücher, T., Feurdean, A., Gil-Romera, G., Iglesias, V., Maezumi, S.Y., Magi, B., Courtney Mustaphi, C. J., Zhihai, T. 2016. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons. Biogeosciences 13, 3225-3244.

Githumbi, ECourtney Mustaphi, C, Marchant R. 2016. Holocene ecosystem, social and landscape dynamics in East Africa. Quaternary International 404(B): 199–200. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.08.175

Courtney Mustaphi, C and Marchant, R. 2016. A Database of Radiocarbon Dates for Palaeoenvironmental Research in Eastern Africa. Open Quaternary, 2: 3, pp. 1–7. [Data CARD2.0] [Data at Harvard Dataverse]

Kehrwald, N.M., Aleman, J.C., Coughlan, M., Courtney Mustaphi, C.J.Githumbi, E.N., Magi, B.I., Marlon, J.R., Power, M.J. 2016. One thousand years of fires: integrating proxy and model data. Frontiers of Biogeography 8(1): 155-159.

Lane, Paul J. 2016. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach, PLoS ONE11(10): e0163606, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163606

Lane, Paul J. (2016). Places and paths of memory: archaeologies of East African pastoralist landscapes. In J. Beardsley (ed.) Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Harvard: Harvard University Press (Dumbarton Oaks Texts in Garden & Landscape Studies), pp. 193-234.

Lane, Paul J. (2016). Entangled banks and the domestication of East African pastoralist landscapes. In F. Fernandini and L. Der (eds.) Archaeology of Entanglement. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 127-150.

Lane, Paul J. (2016). Just how long does ‘long-term’ have to be? Matters of temporal scale as impediments to interdisciplinary understanding in historical ecology. In C. Isendahl and D. Stump (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199672691.013.5

Colombaroli, Daniele, Geert van der Plas, Stephen Rucina and Dirk Verschuren (2016). Determinants of savanna-fire dynamics in eastern Lake Victoria catchment (western Kenya) during the last 1200 years, Quaternary International,

Chuhila, Maxmillian and Andrea Kifyasi (2016), ‘A Development Narrative of a Rural Economy: The Politics of Forest Plantations and Land Use in Mufindi and Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; 1920s to 2000s’ International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research 4, No. 3, pp. 528 – 538.

Anderson, David M. and Michael Bollig (2016). ‘Resilience and collapse: histories, ecologies, conflicts and identities in the Baringo-Bogoria basin, Kenya.’ Journal of Eastern African Studies 10, i: 1-20.

Anderson, David M. (2016). ‘The beginning of time? Evidence for catastrophic drought in Baringo in the early nineteenth century.’ Journal of Eastern African Studies 10, i: 39-61.

Courtney Mustaphi, CJGithumbi, EN, Shotter, LR, Rucina, SM, Marchant, R. 2016.  Subfossil statoblasts of Lophopodella capensis (Sollas, 1908) (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata: Lophopodidae) in the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of a montane wetland, Eastern Mau Forest, Kenya. African Invertebrates 7(1): 39-52. doi: 10.3897/afrinvertebr.57.8191. [Data available]

Onyekuru, N.A. and Marchant, R., 2016. Assessing the economic impact of climate change on forest resource use in Nigeria: A Ricardian approachAgricultural and Forest Meteorology220, pp.10-20.

Howard, R.J., Tallontire, A.M., Stringer, L.C. and Marchant, R.A., 2016. Which “fairness”, for whom, and why? An empirical analysis of plural notions of fairness in Fairtrade Carbon Projects, using Q methodology. Environmental Science & Policy, 56, pp.100-109.Crowther, A., Faulkner, P., Prendergast, M.E., Quintana Morales, E.M., Horton, M., Wilmsen, E., Kotarba-Morley, A.M., Christie, A., Petek, N., Tibesasa, R. and Douka, K., 2016. Coastal subsistence, maritime trade, and the colonization of small offshore islands in eastern African prehistoryThe Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology11(2), pp.211-237.

Simon Willcock, Oliver L. Phillips, Philip J. Platts3, Ruth D. Swetnam, Andrew Balmford, Neil D. Burgess, Antje Ahrends, Julian Bayliss, Nike Doggart, Kathryn Doody, Eibleis Fanning, Jonathan M. H. Green, Jaclyn Hall, Kim L. Howell, Jon C. Lovett, Rob Marchant, Andrew R. Marshall, Boniface Mbilinyi, Pantaleon K. T. Munishi, Nisha Owen, Elmer J. Topp-Jorgensen, Simon L. Lewis, 2016. Land cover change and carbon emissions over 100 years in an African biodiversity hotspot. Global change biology.

Gillson L, Marchant R (2014) TREE 29(6): 317-325.

Lane, Paul J. (2015). Archaeology in the age of the Anthropocene: A critical assessment of its scope and societal contributions. Journal of Field Archaeology 40: 485-498,

Platts PJ, Omeny PA, Marchant R (2015). AFRICLIM: high-resolution climate projections for ecological applications in Africa.

Hazard, Benoit (2015). ‘Anthropocène’ in COP 21 Déprogrammer l’apocalypse, Sous la direction de Raymond Woessner, éditions Atlande.

Hazard, Benoit (2015). ‘Scénario du changement climatique en Afrique de l’Est’, in Cop 21. Changement climatique, impact anthropique, COP 21 Déprogrammer l’apocalypse, sous la direction de Raymond Woessner, éditions Atlande.

Adongo C, Hazard B (2015). ‘La géothermie : entre développement et énergie verte en Afrique de l’Est’, in COP 21 Déprogrammer l’apocalypse, ss. dir. de Raymond Woessner, éditions Atlande.

Adongo C. 2015. Y a-t-il des énergies vertes? Le cas de la géothermie au Kenya. In: R Woessner (ed.) Déprogrammer l’apocalypse: le passe, la présentet l’avenir du climat: Les leçons pour éviter le pire. Paris.

Hoogakker, B.A.A., Smith, R.S., Singarayer, J.S., Marchant, R., Prentice, I.C., Allen, J., Anderson, R.S., Bhagwat, S.A., Behling, H., Borisova, O. and Bush, M., et al., 2015. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr and their impact on ocean δ 13C. Climate of Past Discussions, 11, pp. 1031-1091.

Courtney Mustaphi, C.J., Shoemaker, A.C., Githumbi, E.N., Kariuki, R., Muriuki, R.M., Rucina, S., Marchant, R. 2015. Historical ecology perspectives of changes in Amboseli, Kenya. GLP Newsletter – Newsletter of the Global Land Project, Issue 12, November 2015: pp 26-29. [Link to full issue]

Petek, N. (2015) An Archaeological Survey of the Lake Baringo Lowlands 2014: Preliminary Results, Nyame Akuma 83: 100-111 [Link to issue]

J. R. Marlon, R. Kelly, A.-L. Daniau, B. Vannière, M. J. Power, P. Bartlein, P. Higuera, O. Blarquez, S. Brewer, T. Brücher, A. Feurdean10, G. Gil-Romera, V. Iglesias, S. Y. Maezumi, B. Magi, C. J. Courtney Mustaphi, T. Zhihai. 2015. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons. Biogeosciences Discussions 12 (22). doi:10.5194/bgd-12-18571-2015, 2015

Howard RJ, Tallontire AM, Stringer L, Marchant R (2015). Unravelling the notion of “fair carbon”: key challenges for standards development. World Development 70, 343–356

Platts PJ, Omeny PA, Marchant R (2015). AFRICLIM: high-resolution climate projections for ecological applications in Africa. African Journal of Ecology 53, 103-108 | AFRICLIM 3.0,doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.1284624

Woodroffe SA, Long AJ, Punwong P, Selby K, Bryant CL, Marchant R (2015). Radiocarbon dating of mangrove sediments to constrain Holocene relative sea-level change on Zanzibar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The Holocene 25, 820-831

JA Dearing,  B Acma,  S Bub,  FM Chambers,  X Chen,  J Cooper,  D Crook,  XH Dong,  M Dotterweich,  ME Edwards,  TH Foster,  M-J Gaillard,  D Galop,  P Gell,  A Gil,  E Jeffers,  RT Jones,  K Anupama,  PG Langdon,  R Marchant,  F Mazier,  CE McLean,  LH Nunes,  R Sukumar,  I Suryaprakash,  M Umer,  XD Yang,  R Wang,  K Zhang. 2015. Social-ecological systems in the Anthropocene: the need for integrating social and biophysical records at regional scales. The Anthropocene Review Volume: 2 issue: 3, page(s): 220-246. DOI: 10.1177/2053019615579128

Kioko, E. M., Bollig, M. (2015). Cross-cutting Ties and Coexistence: Intermarriage, Land Rentals and Changing Land Use Patterns among Maasai and Kikuyu of Maiella and Enoosupukia, Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya. Rural Landscapes: Society, Environment, History, 2(1): 1, pp. 1-16, DOI:

Courtney Mustaphi, CJ, Rucina, SM, Marchant, R. 2014. Training in emerging palaeoenvironmental approaches to researchers on the dynamics of East African ecosystems. Frontiers of Biogeography volume 6 issue 4, 169-172. [PDF]

Courtney Mustaphi, C.J. and Pisaric M.F.J. 2014. A classification for macroscopic charcoal morphologies found in Holocene lacustrine sediments. Progress in Physical Geography 38: 734-754.  doi:10.1177/0309133314548886 [Data link]

Anderson, DM, Rolandsen, ØH. 2014. Violence as politics in eastern Africa, 1940–1990: legacy, agency, contingency. Journal of Eastern African Studies 8, 539-557. DOI:10.1080/17531055.2014.949402

Anderson, DM. 2014. Remembering Wagalla: state violence in northern Kenya, 1962–1991. Journal of Eastern African Studies 8, 658-676. DOI:10.1080/17531055.2014.946237

Gillson, L; Marchant, R. 2014. From myopia to clarity: sharpening the focus of ecosystem management through the lens of palaeoecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29: 317-325.
[PDF] [DOI] [+ Abstract]

Marchant, RLane, P. (2014). Past perspectives for the future: foundations for sustainable development in East Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 51:12-21.

Bollig, M. 2014. Resilience – analytical tool, bridging concept or development goal? Anthropological perspectives on the use of a border object. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 139: 253-279.

Theses from the REAL Project

Shoemaker A. 2018. Pastoral pasts in the Amboseli landscape: An archaeological exploration of the Amboseli ecosystem from the later Holocene to the colonial period. Phd thesis. Uppsala University.

Petek, Nik. 2018. Archaeological Perspectives on Risk and Community Resilience in the Baringo Lowlands, Kenya. PhD dissertation, June 2018. Uppsala, Sweden: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University,
Series: Studies in Global Archaeology 24, ISSN 1651-1255. p. 294.

de Bont, Chris. 2018. Modernisation and farmer-led irrigation development in Africa: A study of state-farmer interactions in Tanzania. PhD thesis Stockholm University, Department of Human Geography. ISBN: 978-91-7797-224-2 (print).

Githumbi, E.N., 2017. Holocene Environmental and Human Interactions in East Africa. Doctoral dissertation, University of York.

Chuhila, Maxmillian J. 2016. Coming Down the Mountain A History of Land Use Change in Kilimanjaro, ca. 1920 to 2000s. PhD thesis, Oct 2016. University of Warwick, UK.

Kioko, Eric M (2016) Turning conflict into coexistence: cross-cutting ties and institutions in the agro-pastoral borderlands of Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln. Online:


Liz Storer, Anna Shoemaker, Annemiek Pas Schrijver, Geert W. van der Plas, Colin J. Courtney Mustaphi (eds.). 2017. Field diary. Issue 2 Mar 2017. 45pp.

Robertson A, Githumbi E and Colombaroli, D (2016) Palaeofires and models illuminate future fire scenarios, Eos, 97,  doi:10.1029/2016EO049933 Biogeosciences 97 2016 (PDF , 2,509kb)

Courtney Mustaphi, CJ, Marchant, R. 2016. A database of radiocarbon dates for palaeoenvironmental research in eastern Africa. Open Quaternary, 2: 3, pp. 1–7. [Map and access to data] [Data at Harvard Dataverse].

Kehrwald, N.M., Aleman, J.C., Coughlan, M., Courtney Mustaphi, C.J., Githumbi, E.N., Magi, B.I., Marlon, J.R., Power, M.J. 2016. One thousand years of fires: integrating proxy and model data. Frontiers in Biogography 8(1): 155-159.

Petek, Nik (2015) An Archaeological Survey of the Lake Baringo Lowlands 2014: Preliminary Results, Nyame Akuma 83: 100-111.

Esther N. Githumbi, Rebecca Kariuki, Colin J. Courtney Mustaphi, Rebecca Muriuki, Stephen M. Rucina, Rob Marchant. 2015. Recent environmental changes in Eastern Mau and Amboseli, Kenya. BIEA 2014-2015 annual report, pp 22.

Annemiek Pas SchrijverGeert W. van der PlasColin J. Courtney Mustaphi (eds.). 2015. Field diary. Issue 1 Jul 2015. 17pp. [PDF]

Petek, N. (2014) The Baringo Archaeological Survey and Human Habitation Impact Assessment. Unpublished report submitted to the British Institute in Eastern African (BIEA) and the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), Kenya

Esther N. GithumbiColin J. Courtney MustaphiRob Marchant. 2014. Natural and anthropogenic causes of environmental change in the Amboseli and Mau Forest regions. BIEA 2013-2014 annual report, pp 11-12.

Courtney Mustaphi, CJGithumbi, E; Mutua, J; Muriuki, RM; Rucina, SM; Marchant, R. 2014. Ongoing sedimentological and palaeoecological investigations at Nyabuiyabui wetland, Kiptunga Forest Block, Eastern Mau Forest, Nakuru District, Kenya. Report to the Mau Forest Conservation Office, Kenya Forest Service, and the National Museums of Kenya Palaeobotany and Palynology Section. REAL contribution 002. 4 May 2014. 29 p.
[PDF] [+ Abstract] [Hardcopy available at the IFRA library, Kileleshwa, Nairobi, Kenya]

Courtney Mustaphi, CJGithumbi, EShoemaker, ADegefa, AZPetek, Nvan der Plas, GW; Muriuki, RM; Rucina, SM; Marchant, R. 2014. Ongoing sedimentological and palaeoecological investigations at Lielerai Kimana and Ormakau Swamps, Kajiado District, Kenya. A report to the local authorities of Kimana and Namelok, Olive Branch Mission Africa Operations, and the National Museums of Kenya Palaeobotany and Palynology Section. REAL contribution 001. 29 April, 2014. 32 p.
[PDF] [+ Abstract] [Hardcopy available at the IFRA library, Kileleshwa, Nairobi, Kenya]


Petek, N. (2015) The natural heritage of human occupation: How bomas shape the environment in Baringo, Kenya. At: African Heritage Challenges: Development and Sustainability, CRASSH, University of Cambridge, 15-16 May 2015 [PDF]

Petek, N. & Lane, P.(2014) Landscape and Population Resilience in the Lake Baringo Basin, Kenya, AD 800-1750 At: 14th Congress of the Pan-African Archaeological Association, University of the Witwatersrand, 14-18 July 2014 [PDF]

Courtney Mustaphi, CJ; Deere, N; Githumbi, E; Marchant, R. 2014. Fire disturbance regimes and vegetation interactions in East Africa during the Late Quaternary [updated]. South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP) – Royal Society, London, UK, October 6-7, 2014. [PDF]  [JPEG]

Courtney Mustaphi, CJ; Deere, N; Githumbi, E; Marchant, R. 2014. Fire disturbance regimes and vegetation interactions in East Africa during the Late Quaternary. Open PAGES Focus 4 Workshop Human-Climate-Ecosystem Interactions, University of Leuven, Belgium, February 3-7, 2014.
[+ Abstract]

Githumbi, E; Courtney Mustaphi, CJ; Deere, N; Marchant, R. 2014. Long Term Ecosystem and Landscape Dynamics in East Africa. University of York Environment Department Post Graduate Conference. York, UK. February, 20-21, 2014.